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Nano Technology against Emissions

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Nano Technology against Emissions

Nano Technology against Emissions

ID: F1510-04

The usage of fossil fuels has developed a quantity of problems for which countries are intensively developing solutions to boost sustainability. All solutions require some type of separation and purification, which is currently achieved through primarily energy-intensive processes such as absorption, cryogenic separation and distillation. Polymer membranes are considered one of the absolute most energy-efficient methods for separating gases. However, many polymers either have actually low permeability or are not selective toward one gasoline over another. A project therefore developed novel polymers that effectively separate gas mixtures. The project looked at proper combinations of nanofillers with microcavities inside them that have actually well-defined size and porosity dispersed in advanced nanoporous polymers. Addition of nanofillers such as carbon nanotubes, zeolites, mesoporous oxides and metal-organic frameworks permitted increasing the polymer-free volume and creating preferential networks for mass transportation. Other than developing large amount polymers such as polynorbornenes, researchers also produced polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Such polymers are unable to pack effectively in the solid state and therefore trap enough free volume. Due to their contorted framework, they allow fast transport of tiny gas particles. Scientists developed a new polymerisation effect based on old chemistry – Tröger's base formation – that allowed them to prepare an extremely stiff polymer framework. Prospective programs of the technique should expand far beyond planning polymers just for gas separation membranes. Due to its extreme rigidity, the polymer functions as a molecular sieve, hindering transportation of larger gasoline molecules. To become an attractive alternative, pervaporation membranes need to be improved to become highly selective for ethanol over water. The task significantly improved understanding of fouling processes occurring at the membranes to enhance ethanol data recovery from fermentation broth. The project's innovative membrane layer technology should also offer an alternative to conventional processes for CO2 separation in energy stations. Despite their prospective, the polymer materials require to be scaled to enable further analysis of the separation procedure.

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